There is nothing like a specific bone disorder of a damaged tooth that is exposed to something cold. An ice cream bite or a cold drink, այդ suddenly that sharp, calm feeling, like a needle piercing a nerve.
Researchers have known for years that this phenomenon is the result of damage to the protective outer layer of the tooth. But figuring out how the message from the outside of your tooth gets to its nerves is hard to detect. In the journal Science Advances on Friday, biologists reported that they had discovered an unexpected factor in this painful sensation: the protein contained on the surface of the cells inside the teeth. The discovery provides an overview of the outside world ներքին the internal connection of the tooth և may one day help guide the methods of treating toothache.
More than a decade ago, Dr. Katarina Zim Imerman, now a professor at the Friedrich-Alexander University in Germany, discovered that cells that produce a protein called TRPC5 are sensitive to cold. When everything was frozen, TRPC5 opened to create a wave, allowing ions to flow through the cell membrane.
Dr. Zim Imerman said that ion waves like TRPC5 are scattered throughout our bodies, they are behind surprisingly familiar sensations. For example, if your eyes feel cold և dry in cold air, it is the result of ion wave activation in the cornea. He wondered in which parts of the body a cold receptor, such as TRPC5, could be used. And it occurred to him that “the most sensitive tissue in the human body can be the teeth” when it comes to cold sensations.
In their protective enamel case, the teeth are made of a hard material called dentin, which is wrapped in small tunnels. At the base of the denture is the soft pulp of the tooth, where the dentin cells and the cells called odontoblasts, which are the production of dentures, are intertwined.
The prevailing theory about how teeth feel cold is that temperature changes pressurize the fluid in the dentures, responding in some way to those hidden nerves. But there were few details about how exactly this could have happened, what could have bridged the gap between them.
Dr. Zim Imerman և and his colleagues looked at whether mice without the TRPC5 channel still felt toothache like normal mice. They found that these mice did not behave as if something was wrong when they damaged their teeth. They were essentially about the same as if they had been given an anti-inflammatory painkiller, said Dr. Zim Immerman.
His co-author, Dr. Jochen Lenner, a pathologist at Massachusetts General Hospital, examined human teeth for signs of an ion wave and found it in other cells in their nerves. This suggested that the TV channel may play a role in a person’s perception of the cold.
Over the years, researchers have developed a tool that will accurately measure nerve impulses emanating from a damaged mouse. They tested their ideas with molecules that could block the activity of various channels, including TRPC5.
The picture they slowly gathered is that TRPC5 is active in odontoblasts. This came as a bit of a surprise, as these helper cells are better known for making and preserving dentin, rather than aiding perception. Inside the odontoblasts, Dr. Lenner said, TRPC5 opens when a cold signal descends through the dentures, sending a message to the nerves.
Coincidentally, one of the ingredients that keeps TRPC5 from opening is eugenol, the main ingredient in clove oil, a traditional toothache remedy. Although the US Food and Drug Administration is ambiguous about the effectiveness of eugenol, if it relieves pain in some people, it may be because of its effect on TRPC5.
Perhaps the knowledge that this wave is the basis of the pain caused by the cold will lead to a better treatment of toothache. Better ways not to make that message overwhelming.