By the time tens of millions of people in the United States reach the end of their coronavirus vaccination, a small proportion have had “breakthrough infections” and tested positive for the virus, rarely requiring hospitalization.
The exact number of cases of this progress is unknown, but the figures published by the states suggest that they are at least a few thousand. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which has had a team monitoring progressive infections since February, has some data but has not released it.
These cases represent a small percentage of the 66 million people who are fully vaccinated, experts say, and they are neither unexpected nor alarming. Indeed, the rarity of large-scale epidemics of vaccines reinforces the encouraging message of public health professionals. These vaccines are very effective, their spread has drastically reduced the disease և mortality rate among the most vulnerable populations. primarily for targeted vaccinations.
“There is no red flag there yet,” President Joe Biden’s chief medical adviser, Anthony Faus, told a White House news briefing on Friday when asked about the progress. “Obviously we will be very careful about that.”
The administration, the state health officials, the “health workers on the front lines” are facing challenges, trying to find a clear picture of these distant cases. Data is incomplete. Some states have not reported their promotion infection numbers to the CDC. Some post-vaccination deaths are still under investigation և may not be caused directly by COVID-19, a disease caused by the coronavirus.
Investigators are disturbed by the scattered, often chaotic, nature of the epidemic response in the United States. The genomic sequence may be used to determine which strain of the virus is causing the infection, but positive test samples are often removed before investigators can obtain them. Vaccinated people may also be less motivated to undergo an examination if they fall into the olfactory sheath. They may assume that it is simply colder than COVID-19.
There is no single explanation for why the virus is rarely neutralized by a vaccine-mediated immune response. Infectious disease specialists say that the human immune system is complex, և some people may simply have a weak immune response to the vaccine. In this scenario, the wild card is not the vaccine, but the patient.
Fauci offered that explanation during a White House briefing on Friday. He says there have been several deaths among fully vaccinated people in the elderly who may have underlying health conditions or may not have a strong immune response.
“I do not think there should be any concern about any change or modification in the effectiveness of the vaccine,” Faucin said.
An unlikely scenario is that injected versions of the virus find ways to avoid vaccine-induced immunity. Investigators generally do not have comprehensive data on the specific progression of specific strains of the virus. Although the variants are widely accepted throughout the country, there is no evidence that these variants are the main driver of progressive infections. Officials did not notice any change in the pace of progress as the options spread.
The three vaccines currently approved in the United States appear to be quite effective against all well-documented variants of the circulating virus, studies show.
“Scientists are studying the role of variants, but” there is currently no evidence that COVID-19 occurs after vaccination due to changes in the virus, “said CDC spokeswoman Kristen Nordlund.
Investigation of breakthroughs և specific vaccines or coronavirus variants prevents data testing gaps. Kelly Wroblsky, director of infectious disease at the Association of Public Health Laboratories, says many labs have a short storage policy for virus samples of about a week or less.
“It simply came to our notice then. “We just have to hope that the specimen is still there, that there is enough, that it has been stored properly, and all these other things,” he said.
Public health labs regularly send information to two major public databases that serve as central repositories for genome sequences, but they have limited information.
“You will have a sequence, you will know it was from Michigan, you will know when it was assembled, but about that, with a few other indicators,” said Wroblsky. “You will not know if it was collected from a vaccinated person.”
Infectious disease specialists agree on one thing. As long as the virus is easily circulated in the communities, everyone should do what is necessary to limit the transmission and reduce the number of infections.
“There is nothing surprising about that,” said Francis Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health, about advanced infections. “They are still vaccines that are fantastically safe and effective. But 95% is not 100%. “
He said he feared people would use the vaccine to promote the spread of the infection, claiming that the vaccine did not work.
“Would you stop your seat belt because you heard that someone wearing a seat belt was hit by an 18-wheeler and couldn’t stand it?” Collins asked.
The primary purpose of mass vaccination is to create a collective barrier against the spread of the virus, known as herd immunity. Individuals also benefit, but they are not completely protected from infection. Studies show that people who get vaccinated are much less likely to get the virus if they become infected, but that remains to be seen. home
Breakthrough infections rarely lead to serious illness. Randomized clinical trials last year showed that և Pfizer-BioNTech և Moderna mRNA vaccines were almost 100% effective in preventing hospitalization, ումը the spread of the vaccine to more than 100 million people confirmed this. In real-life conditions, vaccines reduced the risk of infection by 80% after a single shot, and protection increased by up to 90% after a second dose.
The defense must give some time. This is a key issue that remained speculative in the early months of the epidemic, but became clearer as people vaccinated were tested for other signs of antibodies in the immune system. A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine on Tuesday, which focused on the Moderna vaccine but has been followed by other vaccines, found that people who were fully vaccinated had stronger antibodies more than six months later. “These levels are slowly declining, which means that vaccine-induced immunity must be prolonged.” How long to wait?
Although the CDC has not released national progress data, states have begun to publicize what they see.
In Washington state, officials found 102 cases of progress among more than 1 million people who were vaccinated between February and March 20, a significantly smaller percentage. Eight of the 102 people involved were hospitalized, and two more were elderly residents of long-term care facilities and died. Most had only mild symptoms, if any.
“Look, we have vaccinated more than 1 million people, we know the vaccines are not 100%, it is not surprising that you will get breakthrough infections,” Shah said.
Maine has fully vaccinated 3,40,301 people, with 62 reported outbreaks of the infection, including one who died in hospital care, said Nirav D., director of the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention. He says Maine determines the sequence of events, but officials are not always able to obtain the genetic material. Officials have not found a clear version.
“We are sequencing because science does it,” Shah said, “not because we see signs of vaccine erosion efficacy.” “99.981% of vaccinated people did not progress.”
In South Carolina, state officials had completely vaccinated more than 2.1 million people as of April 5, reporting 141 breakthrough infections. In Nevada, according to the Department of Health, 58 cases have been reported in more than half a million people who have been fully vaccinated.
By April 2, Oregon health authorities had detected 168 cases, including three deaths, among more than 700,000 vaccinated people. Many had asymptomatic infections. 19 were hospitalized,: most of them over the age of 65 or underlying health.
Michigan reported this week that 246 people who have been fully vaccinated have been positively evaluated for the coronavirus, and three have died. Those cases in Michigan included 1.7 million people vaccinated.
Beaumont Health, which runs eight hospitals in the Detroit area, is tracking 161,000 vaccinated patients and trying to find out how many had advanced infections. Nicholas Gilpin, medical director of the Beaumont Infection Prevention System, said it was difficult to obtain a genetic sequence of virus samples from breakthroughs. But he noted that promotion cases are rarely serious.
“Those who are sick enough to guarantee hospitalization can be counted on one hand,” Gilpin said.
According to experts, the main number of breakthroughs is the huge number of people currently vaccinated.
“It is not surprising that there are still people in the hundreds of millions of people who are infected, suffering from mild or moderate illness,” said Paul A. Ofit, director of the Children’s Hospital Vaccine Education Center. Philadelphia “You are concerned about people who, despite being immunized, are hospitalized or die.”
Ofit և others closely follow mutated variants that may be further mutated. His biggest concerns include public attitudes.
“What worries me more than the options are those who prefer not to be vaccinated,” said Ofit.