NEW YORK (AP) – Peruvian roads and schools are named after Túpac Amaru. His frame image – a stern look, flowing hair, a wide-brimmed hat – hangs in the Lima Government Palace. He inspired Tupacman, the comic book superhero. This year’s historical drama series examines his life.
The mule merchant, who claimed to be from the Inca dynasty, led the Andean revolt against Spanish colonial rule, was brutally executed on May 18, 1781, and was appropriated as a symbol by partisan governments.
His American rapper of the same name Tupac Amaru Shakur added to his international aura.
This year, the twentieth anniversary of Peru’s independence from Spain in 1821, Túpac Amaru and his wife, Micaela Bastidas, are more often celebrated as the foundation of the struggle. They are a native counterpart, say Simon Bolivar, José de San Martինn, and other European leaders of European descent who have arrived in Peru from other parts of the continent.
The Uyghur uprising is a “precedent for independence,” said Juan Manuel Burga Diaz, a historian and director of the Ministry of Culture, a website of the Ministry of Culture, a place of tolerance and social inclusion in the Peruvian capital.
«Túpac Amaru and Micaela Bastidas: The art exhibition at Memory, Symbols and Mysteries concluded on Tuesday for visitors to the ancient residence of the Inca Empire on the 240th anniversary of their execution in Cuzco. It remains available online.
The executioners cut Bastidas’ tongue and “strangled her in front of her husband” in the main square. They tried in vain to dismember the Túpac Amaru by tying it to horses on all fours stretching in different directions. They beheaded him. Other body parts were displayed in other cities as a warning.
“Now they are part of the history not only of the (Spanish) vicarage, but of the history of the Republic of Peru,” said Burga Diaz. “And this is a difference from my memory of document historians. The memory of the people who think that Túpac Amaru rose for the independence of the country. “
Quechua activist Tania Pariona Tarku, a former congressman, says there has been a “historic salvation” that is still lacking, such as indigenous figures such as Bastidas, a key logistics strategist of the uprising.
“In my experience, I can say that the school always teaches us the history of others who have come to achieve this historic achievement of ‘independence,'” said Pariona Tarkyun, noting that delays in awarding land titles to indigenous peoples have made them vulnerable to mining. և For other developers.
And there is invisibility of the local natives. “Women can be the most invisible among them,” she said.
There is no surviving image of Bastidas. Some images of the 20th century showed that he was white, reflecting what critics said was an attempt by the elites to assimilate him. His father may have been of African descent; more recently, his artistic commentaries have matched his Andean origins.
Indigenous people of Peru’s mixed race make up the majority of the population, although lighter-skinned elites have traditionally led the nation. Pariona Tarqui said village teacher Pedro Castillo, one of the two candidates running for president on June 6, had promised to help Amazon communities that do not have land titles, but he warned that no government had been effective so far. survey:
In April, another presidential candidate, Veronica Mendoza, paid tribute to the Túpac Amaru monument in Cuzco. He was accompanied by shamans. A few days later, Mendoza dropped out of the first round of voting.
On July 28, the anniversary of independence, a drama series “Other Liberators” is scheduled to air on Peru’s Latina Televisión. We are talking about several historical figures, including Tepek Amarun և Pumakahua, a native առաջնորդ Royalist leader, who helped defeat the rebels but later revolted against the Spaniards.
The Túpac Amaru was raised as a national symbol during the 1968-75 “revolutionary government” of Peruvian General Juan Velasco Alvarado. The rebellious Túpac Amaru revolutionary movement operated in Peru in the 1980s and 1990s, at the same time as the larger Shining Path uprising. The same inspiration was found by the Uruguayan guerrilla group “Tupamaros”.
Túpac Amaru was born in 1738 to Jose Gabriel Condorcanci and was named after the Inca prince, who was executed in 1572.
“It’s really hard to fit in because he had a very ambiguous platform. That was before the French Revolution, before the Haitian Revolution. So people ask me what exactly he wanted. ” says Charles Walker, professor of Latin America at the University of California, Davis and author of The Tupac Amaru Uprising.
Walker said Túpac Amaru wanted to get rid of the colonial administrators and cut taxes, but expressed allegiance to the King of Spain, the Catholic Church, which is an instrument of Spanish governance. According to Walker, the rebellion was “rather hierarchical”; it did not maintain the equality associated with subsequent revolutionary movements.
In the second phase of the uprising, after the death of Topak Amaru և Bastidas, the rebels developed a more radical agenda և tactic. The atrocities committed by both sides intensified.
The work of artist Daniela Ortiz in “Memory” focuses on Fernando, the youngest son of Bastidas, the dead Topak Amaru, imprisoned in Spain. Ortiz said that the native identity, the cornerstone of the couple’s platform, is not a priority for future freedom fighters.
“The project of independence that Túpac Amaru և Micaela Bastidas had was very different from the project of independence that finally took place in 1821,” Ortiz said.